Harvested Area and Yield for 175 Crops

Croplands cover ~15 million km2 of the planet and provide the bulk of the food and fiber essential to human well-being. Most global land cover data sets from satellites group croplands into just a few categories, thereby excluding information that is critical for answering key questions ranging from biodiversity conservation to food security to biogeochemical cycling. Information about agricultural land use practices like crop selection, yield, and fertilizer use is even more limited. Here we present land use data sets created by combining national, state, and county level census statistics with a recently updated global data set of croplands on a 5 minute by 5 minute (~10 km by 10 km) latitude/longitude grid. The resulting land use data sets depict circa the year 2000 the area (harvested) and yield of 175 distinct crops of the world.


Monfreda, C., N. Ramankutty, and J. A. Foley (2008), Farming the planet: 2. Geographic distribution of crop areas, yields, physiological types, and net primary production in the year 2000, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB1022, doi: 10.1029/2007GB002947.


Direct questions by email to earthstat.data@gmail.com or navin.ramankutty@ubc.ca

For additional information regarding publications and research, visit http://gli.environment.umn.edu/ or http://www.ramankuttylab.com

Data Products:

The following data products are included for each of 175 crops:

  • Harvested Area: fractional:  Crop-specific data representing the average fractional proportion of a gridcell that was harvested in a crop during the 1997-2003 era.
  • Harvested Area: hectares: Crop-specific data representing the average number of hectares harvested per land-area of a gridcell during the 1997-2003 era
  • Yield : tons per hectare: Crop-specific data representing the average yield for a crop in tons per hectare during the 1997-2003 era
  • Production: tons: Total crop production in metric tons on the land-area mass of a gridcell. Harvested area in hectares was multiplied by yield per hectare to create this data product.

Data Quality for harvested area and yield: These products represent the agricultural census data quality for harvested area and yield for each crop. Data quality categories:

  • Value of 1: county level census data
  • Value of 0.75: state level census data
  • Value of 0.5: interpolated with census data from within 2 degrees latitude/longitude
  • Value of 0.25: country level census data
  • Value of 0: missing census data


  • Spatial: Five minute by five minute resolution (~10km x 10km at equator)
  • Temporal: Year 2000 – Average of census data between 1997-2003

Map Projection:

  • Data presented as five-arc-minute, 4320 x 2160 cell grid
  • Spatial Reference: GCS_WGS_1984
  • Datum: D_WGS_1984
  • Cell size: 0.083333 degrees
  • Layer extent:
    • Top : 90
    • Left: -180
    • Right: 180
    • Bottom: -90


Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International


Agricultural Inventory Data:

We collected agricultural census and survey information on the areas and yields of 175 crops from the smallest political units reasonably obtainable for 206 countries. Data availability varied for different crops within each country, with most countries having subnational statistics for some crops but national statistics for others. Subnational data are one or two administrative levels below the national (i.e., state/province and county/district). These include 2299 political units one level below the national from 150 countries, and 19,751 units two levels below for 73 countries. The largest single source of subnational data is Agro-MAPS, a joint project between the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE).

Agro-MAPS is a collection of subnational statistics on crop area, production, and yield for most countries in the world. For some crops, however, the Agro-MAPS data was missing or insufficiently detailed. To cover these gaps, we collected additional data from national census agencies and agricultural surveys. In particular, we turned to additional censuses and surveys to ensure county level data for the largest countries, including Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Canada, India, the United States, and China. In certain instances we were only able to obtain subnational information on major crop groups (e.g., fruits or vegetables), which we used to proportionally distribute national level data from FAO to the state or county level.

When subnational statistics were unavailable, we relied on national figures from the Food and Agriculture Organization’s statistical databases [FAO, 2006a]. We collected
independent national level data for four countries that were absent from FAO: Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, and Taiwan.

Frequently Asked Questions and Tips:

  • Q: Why does the harvested area fraction exceed 1 (100% or more of a cell in a single crop)?
    • A: A grid cell may be more than 1.0 or 100% due to multiple harvests per year. For example, if a crop is produced in 60% of the grid cell’s area, and harvested twice in one year, that cell would have a value of 1.2, or 120%.
  • These data sets are not intended to be interpreted at the individual grid cell level. Although it is presented at five-minute resolution, the best way to use these maps is to compare counties, states, regions, countries, or continents.
  • Due to the nature of agricultural statistics, the major crops are also more reliable than the minor crops. In other words, be more careful when using bambara or broccoli data than when using wheat or maize data.
  • Updates to include historical and more recent data are currently in progress. While agriculture has changed drastically in the past decade, we believe that these data represent the more complete and detailed source of spatial agricultural systems in existence.

EarthStat and FAO crop names and crop groups:


abaca Manila Fibre (Abaca) Fiber
agave Agave Fibres Nes Fiber
alfalfa alfalfa Forage
almond Almonds, with shell Treenuts
aniseetc Anise, badian, fennel, corian. OtherCrops
apple Apples Fruit
apricot Apricots Fruit
areca Arecanuts OtherCrops
artichoke Artichokes Vegetables&Melons
asparagus Asparagus Vegetables&Melons
avocado Avocados Fruit
bambara Bambara beans Pulses
banana Bananas Fruit
barley Barley Cereals
bean Beans, dry Pulses
beetfor beetfor Forage
berrynes Berries Nes Fruit
blueberry Blueberries Fruit
brazil Brazil nuts, with shell Treenuts
broadbean Broad beans, horse beans, dry Pulses
buckwheat Buckwheat Cereals
cabbage Cabbages and other brassicas Vegetables&Melons
cabbagefor cabbagefor Forage
canaryseed Canary seed Cereals
carob Carobs Fruit
carrot Carrots and turnips Vegetables&Melons
carrotfor carrotfor Forage
cashew Cashew nuts, with shell Treenuts
cashewapple Cashewapple Fruit
cassava Cassava Roots&Tubers
castor Castor oil seed Oilcrops
cauliflower Cauliflowers and broccoli Vegetables&Melons
cerealnes Cereals, nes Cereals
cherry Cherries Fruit
chestnut Chestnuts Treenuts
chickpea Chick peas Pulses
chicory Chicory roots OtherCrops
chilleetc Chillies and peppers, green Vegetables&Melons
cinnamon Cinnamon (canella) OtherCrops
citrusnes Citrus fruit, nes Fruit
clove Cloves OtherCrops
clover clover Forage
cocoa Cocoa beans OtherCrops
coconut Coconuts Oilcrops
coffee Coffee, green OtherCrops
cotton Seed cotton Fiber
cowpea Cow peas, dry Pulses
cranberry Cranberries Fruit
cucumberetc Cucumbers and gherkins Vegetables&Melons
currant Currants Fruit
date Dates Fruit
eggplant Eggplants (aubergines) Vegetables&Melons
fibrenes Fibre Crops Nes Fiber
fig Figs Fruit
flax Flax fibre and tow Fiber
fonio Fonio Cereals
fornes fornes Forage
fruitnes Fruit Fresh Nes Fruit
garlic Garlic Vegetables&Melons
ginger Ginger OtherCrops
gooseberry Gooseberries Fruit
grape Grapes Fruit
grapefruitetc Grapefruit (inc. pomelos) Fruit
grassnes grassnes Forage
greenbean Beans, green Vegetables&Melons
greenbroadbean Leguminous vegetables, nes Vegetables&Melons
greencorn Maize, green Vegetables&Melons
greenonion Onions (inc. shallots), green Vegetables&Melons
greenpea Peas, green Vegetables&Melons
groundnut Groundnuts, with shell Oilcrops
hazelnut Hazelnuts, with shell Treenuts
hemp Hemp Tow Waste Fiber
hempseed Hempseed Oilcrops
hop Hops OtherCrops
jute Jute Fiber
jutelikefiber Other Bastfibres Fiber
kapokfiber Kapok Fibre Fiber
kapokseed Kapokseed in Shell Fiber
karite Karite Nuts (Sheanuts) Oilcrops
kiwi Kiwi fruit Fruit
kolanut Kolanuts OtherCrops
legumenes legumenes Forage
lemonlime Lemons and limes Fruit
lentil Lentils Pulses
lettuce Lettuce and chicory Vegetables&Melons
linseed Linseed Oilcrops
lupin Lupins Pulses
maize Maize Cereals
maizefor maizefor Forage
mango Mangoes, mangosteens, guavas Fruit
mate MatŽ OtherCrops
melonetc Other melons (inc.cantaloupes) Vegetables&Melons
melonseed Melonseed Oilcrops
millet Millet Cereals
mixedgrain Mixed grain Cereals
mixedgrass mixedgrass Forage
mushroom Mushrooms and truffles Vegetables&Melons
mustard Mustard seed Oilcrops
nutmeg Nutmeg, mace and cardamoms OtherCrops
nutnes Nuts, nes Treenuts
oats Oats Cereals
oilpalm Oil palm fruit Oilcrops
oilseedfor oilseedfor Forage
oilseednes Oilseeds, Nes Oilcrops
okra Okra Vegetables&Melons
olive Olives Oilcrops
onion Onions, dry Vegetables&Melons
orange Oranges Fruit
papaya Papayas Fruit
pea Peas, dry Pulses
peachetc Peaches and nectarines Fruit
pear Pears Fruit
pepper Pepper (Piper spp.) OtherCrops
peppermint Peppermint OtherCrops
persimmon Persimmons Fruit
pigeonpea Pigeon peas Pulses
pimento Chillies and peppers, dry OtherCrops
pineapple Pineapples Fruit
pistachio Pistachios Treenuts
plantain Plantains Fruit
plum Plums and sloes Fruit
poppy Poppy seed Oilcrops
potato Potatoes Roots&Tubers
pulsenes Pulses, nes Pulses
pumpkinetc Pumpkins, squash and gourds Vegetables&Melons
pyrethrum Pyrethrum,Dried OtherCrops
quince Quinces Fruit
quinoa Quinoa Cereals
ramie Ramie Fiber
rapeseed Rapeseed Oilcrops
rasberry Raspberries Fruit
rice Rice, paddy Cereals
rootnes Roots and Tubers, nes Roots&Tubers
rubber Natural rubber OtherCrops
rye Rye Cereals
ryefor ryefor Forage
safflower Safflower seed Oilcrops
sesame Sesame seed Oilcrops
sisal Sisal Fiber
sorghum Sorghum Cereals
sorghumfor sorghumfor Forage
sourcherry Sour cherries Fruit
soybean Soybeans Oilcrops
spicenes Spices, nes OtherCrops
spinach Spinach Vegetables&Melons
stonefruitnes Stone fruit, nes Fruit
strawberry Strawberries Fruit
stringbean String beans Vegetables&Melons
sugarbeet Sugar beet SugarCrops
sugarcane Sugar cane SugarCrops
sugarnes Sugar crops, nes SugarCrops
sunflower Sunflower seed Oilcrops
swedefor swedefor Forage
sweetpotato Sweet potatoes Roots&Tubers
tangetc Tangerines, mandarins, clem. Fruit
taro Taro (cocoyam) Roots&Tubers
tea Tea OtherCrops
tobacco Tobacco, unmanufactured OtherCrops
tomato Tomatoes Vegetables&Melons
triticale Triticale Cereals
tropicalnes Fruit, tropical fresh nes Fruit
tung Tung Nuts Oilcrops
turnipfor turnipfor Forage
vanilla Vanilla OtherCrops
vegetablenes Vegetables fresh nes Vegetables&Melons
vegfor vegfor Forage
vetch Vetches Pulses
walnut Walnuts, with shell Treenuts
watermelon Watermelons Vegetables&Melons
wheat Wheat Cereals
yam Yams Roots&Tubers
yautia Yautia (cocoyam) Roots&Tubers